The Independent Ear

The latest Miles Davis set


The latest in a seemingly endless series of Miles Davis reissues/refreshers/previously-unreleased/newly-discovered/”Bootleg Series” releases is titled Freedom Jazz Dance (Columbia Legacy). The core origins of this new package document a particularly fertile period in Miles prolific recording career, respectively three classic sessions: Miles Smiles, Nefertiti, and Sorcerer (all from 1967, each of the latter two represented by one track each), Miles in the Sky (1968, one track), and the 1976 compilation release Water Babies. The title of this Volume 5 in the Bootleg Series stems from Miles’ bristling adaptation of the Eddie Harris classic contributed by what has come to be known as MD’s second great quintet: Wayne Shorter, Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, and Tony Williams. Besides the hall-of-fame status eventually ascended to by those four Miles Davis hires, and the incredible syncronicity they achieved collectively, another factor that made this quintet a hallmark of Miles’ lustrous career was the fact that this was the first of Miles’ units comprised entirely of next gen musicians.


Besides their younger generation, this was also the first Miles Davis band compelled on record to perform almost entirely their own original compositions, save the rare departure of “Freedom Jazz Dance.” In performance, at least early on, the band continued to rely primarily on extended explorations of standards that had been part of Miles book for years (as detailed in such essential live documentations as “The Complete Live at the Plugged Nickel” set on Legacy); but in the studio Miles sought a more original atmosphere, encouraging his productive young musicians to contribute to the book, most notably Wayne Shorter, a prolific writer.


These 3-CDs illustrate how fortunate we are that Miles Davis was so meticulous about his studio sessions, particularly with this quintet, a band full of eventual trailblazers. This package documents a particularly brilliant pathfinding period in the quintet’s development. With this release you get studio stops & starts, kibitzing between the principles and producer Teo Macero, and fascinating, architectural rehearsal takes – manna from heaven from for Miles Davis completists, particularly those devoted to what was the end point in his acoustic pursuits.


The intrepid listener will experience the actual blossoming of such milestone tracks as Shorter’s classic “Nefertiti,” where from the studio patter one hears how it was determined on the spot that the piece would feature a track long repetition of the theme, achieving the effect of a role reversal between the lead horns and the rhythm section. Hearing the stark simplicity/complexity of “Nefertiti”, which successfully balanced the horns repeated theme statement in concert with particularly one of Tony Williams greatest recorded drum performances and Ron Carter’s relaxed, nimble ownership of the bass violin, is quite intriguing. Pretty much each selection is represented here by what are labeled as “session reels” – essentially the studio rehearsal where the themes, sequencing and tempos are worked out – followed by the master take.


This release is not necessarily for the casual Miles Davis listener – unless that casual listener desires to take the leap to true devotee. So those late comers who jumped on the boat lured by late-80s “Human Nature” era Miles, and chose to investigate no further, need not apply. But for those intrigued by how this quintet operated in the studio, where so much of their path breaking was documented, this is an excellent document. This is also where Wayne Shorter’s writing becomes so essential to this band’s oeuvre.

The piece “Country Son,” which appeared on the Miles in the Sky release, is given a rhythm section rehearsal that testifies to how Carter, Hancock, and Williams worked in trio; a configuration they documented later with several recordings and tours. We also hear Miles sketching out a “Blues in D” at the piano while chatting up Shorter (“He Wayne, want a hamburger?”).

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Meet The Artist

I think opportunities for audiences to meet and interact with jazz artists off the bandstand are very important keys to audience development, to increasing the audience for jazz. Such opportunities help to “demystify” this music we call jazz. For so many, how this music is made remains a bit of a mystery: How do they improvise? What’s on their minds when they improvise? Do they merely come up with notes and chords just out of thin air? How did they choose their particular instrument(s)? What made them decide to play jazz in the first place? How did they put together their band? When they’re playing, how do they make the choices they do? How do they compose? What is this thing called jazz? These and many more questions are the kinds of inquiries audiences often have of jazz musicians.

One of the cornerstones of our annual DC Jazz Festival is our Meet The Artist series. That’s a series of interviews for our audiences, either pre- or post-performance, where we not only interview our featured artists, we also provide opportunities for audience Q&As. For our 2016 DC Jazz Festival, “Meet The Artist” sessions were moderated by jazz historian Bill Brower with Steve Coleman, Kimberley Washington with Meghan Stablie and Igmar Thomas of Revive Music, Jim Byers with NEA Jazz Master Eddie Palmierif, and myself with Kamasi Washington, Cecile McLorin Salvant, and Orrin Evans.

Just to give you a taste of our Meet The Artist series, here’s a segment of our session with pianist-composer-bandleader Orrin Evans on the afternoon prior to his late night performance with his Captain Black Big Band as part of CapitalBop’s jazz loft series on our festival. Special thanks to the intrepid vocalese artist George V. Johnson, Jr. for capturing this from the audience.

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Making the Monterey Jazz Festival essential

Since my first experience there in the early 90s, attendance at the Monterey Jazz Festival (MJF) has been an essential part of my annual travel calendar. That is best exemplified by the fact that once the mid-September MJF date is announced, the calendar is immediately marked for travel and the mind set. Significantly that’s the case regardless of subsequent news of the festival lineup over the succeeding months. The true mark of a successful festival comes when that festival’s constituency cares less about questions of lineup and trusts in the everlasting high quality of the event.

Certainly the Monterey Jazz Festival’s idyllic physical setting is endlessly appealing. The great bassist Ray Drummond, who grew up in the area and is a frequent presence at MJF regardless of whether he’s performing, has used the old label “God’s country”, to sum up the geographic charms of the Monterey Peninsula. After nearly 20 years of practically uninterrupted attendance at MJF, who am I to quibble with Ray’s characterization?

The charms of MJF begin with the journey itself. Granted, what is essentially a long (Friday-Monday) weekend cross-country trip to California might be a bit daunting for some; don’t count this writer in that cadre, nor the legion of others who make the 5-8 hour drive up from the southern parts of the state to what is essentially North-central California, just north of the breathtakingly beautiful vistas of Big Sur.

From DC we generally choose a non-stop flight to either Oakland or San Francisco; yes, San Jose is closer but doesn’t offer the same non-stop flight access from the East as do the two Bay Area ports. From the Bay Area, the chosen routine is the 90-mile drive south to Monterey. A major nuance in that particular segment of the journey: depending upon how much time you’ve afforded yourself, you can make that trip most judiciously via the 101 freeway or take the legendary Pacific Coast Highway, Rt. 1, which has always been our preferred route. The seaside vistas along Rt. 1 are simply incredible, and if surfing is of interest, that stretch of the Pacific is nirvana.

After six hours on a plane, about the last thing I need is the potential driver stresses of the 101; the scenic route it is! Rt. 1 takes you down through tranquil Santa Cruz, home base of Tim Jackson, who I first encountered back in the old Lila Wallace-Readers Digest National Jazz Network days as director of Santa Cruz’s legendary Kuumbwa Jazz Center. Kuumbwa, where Jackson first made his bones as a jazz curator, has long specialized in presenting major touring jazz artists and bands, many of whom come down after stints in San Francisco, on Monday evenings.

Which brings me back to the primary reason why assiduously scanning the Monterey Jazz Festival artist lineup well in advance of the event – and MJF is prolific in its press notices and web updates – is for this writer a largely unnecessary exercise. In Tim Jackson we trust! Tim, who is only MJF’s second artistic director in its storied history, succeeded the legendary founder Jimmy Lyons in 1992. Tim is a man of impeccable jazz tastes, one who is quite savvy at assembling compelling Monterey lineups, so much so that one can always trip plan with complete confidence that the talent lineup will always be stellar. Tim Jackson’s programming acumen was recognized at this year’s 59th annual festival when Berklee College of Music bestowed its George Wein Impressario Award on him, an award presented by Berklee Provost, Dr. Larry Simpson, my old Cleveland homie who is part of our regular MJF crew (seen left, in black jacket, presenting the award to an all smiles Tim Jackson).

That whole aspect of crew, or family, is another of the MJF hallmarks. The festival always feels like a bit of a family reunion, with folks meeting up there annually after years of attendance. A full measure of the dedication many fans feel towards the Monterey experience came to me on my first trip out there. One evening Sonny Rollins was on the Jimmy Lyons stage and my seats in the big Arena (capacity: 5,000) were towards the rear of the facility. If you’ve ever experienced Sonny Rollins in concert you know there’s a distinct visual element to his performances, the way he stalks the stage to emote that big tenor from several sonic vantage points. Seeking a better viewpoint I wandered up close, hugging one of the walls that abut the grandstand area on either side of the Arena. Standing there amidst torrents of tenor madness, I quickly spied an empty aisle seat on one of the first few rows of metal chairs. Easing into that seat while blissfully riding Sonny’s cloud, a few minutes into my revery, an exceedingly polite usher tapped my shoulder to alert me that the woman whose seat I was occupying was walking down the aisle towards said seat, “…and she’s had that same seat for 40 years!” ‘Nuff said, that’s how it is at Monterey; folks just keep coming back and enjoying their annual alliances, friendships, and most of all the great music.

Also not lost on the keen observer, particularly those of us who’ve long decried what by all appearances has been a diminishing black audience for jazz over the last few decades, is the fact that MJF consistently attracts a robust African American constituency among its large audiences. The black audience factor at Monterey is so significant that after a few years attendance this observer finally broke down and asked Tim Jackson why MJF enjoys a seemingly larger African American audience than most ticketed jazz festivals (to anyone who foolishly suggests that black folks don’t turn out for jazz, dig the audience at any free-of-charge jazz performance in an urban area, particularly a free festival; economics – along with who’s onstage – often dictates the complexion of a jazz audience). Very simple, Tim explained, MJF founder Jimmy Lyons (not to be confused with the late alto player of the same name who toiled most auspiciously alongside Cecil Taylor) had a long career in jazz radio and was apparently hip enough to be quite a popular voice in the black community. When Lyons started MJF in 1958, it seems he was Pied Piper enough that his black constituents simply followed him to the festival.

Held on the Monterey County Fairgrounds (a very pleasant daily walk from the Hyatt Hotel, the festival’s host hotel where all the musicians stay, making for quite the scene each post-fest night), besides the main venue in the open-air Arena (on what is now the Jimmy Lyons Stage, same stage where Jimi Hendrix immolated his guitar at Monterey Pop), the festival also plays three indoor venues, including the intimate Coffeehouse Gallery, and the spacious Nightclub and Dizzy’s Den. The Garden Stage is the second largest capacity venue, and there’s a small Courtyard Stage suitable for solo pianists or trios, and the Northcoast Brewing Jazz Education Stage, which on Saturday and Sunday afternoons during the matinee sessions (which play all the other venues) hosts many exceptional student ensembles. MJF has a major stake in jazz education, including its Next Generation Jazz Orchestra. This kind of 3-ring circus set-up certainly encourages shrewd navigation of the MJF schedule grid, often leaving one scrambling to catch at least a good portion of every set of interest, along with shrugging the shoulders at the occasional missed opportunity.

The availability of such a variety of venues, particularly in the hands of a curator with the acumen of Tim Jackson, conjures endless artistic combinations. For example, tenor saxophonist Joshua Redman was the featured Showcase Artist. On Friday evening at Dizzy’s Den he was featured as part of the edgy and engaging Still Dreaming ensemble, featuring trumpeter Ron Miles, bassist Scott Colley, and drummer Brian Blade in an updated echo of Old and New Dreams, the great 70s post-Ornette Coleman band featuring Joshua’s father Dewey Redman, Don Cherry, Charlie Haden and Ed Blackwell. On Saturday night at the Arena, Redman played his partnership with The Bad Plus, and on Sunday evening his quartet closed Dizzy’s Den. In a typical bit of Monterey programming, the glorious young vocalist Cecile McLorin Salvant, opened the Friday night program in the Arena, and later that evening followed Still Dreaming for the closing set at Dizzy’s Den. Her two stints were much to the delight of a visible coterie of women Salvant followers who’ve begun to take up her stylish white frame glasses look as a bit of quirky cult following that is rare for 21st century jazz, yet delightful to see.

The versatile bass master Christian McBride was music director for one of the festival highlights, Friday night’s marvelous Tribute to Quincy Jones (who stayed for the hang all weekend) “The A&M Years”. McBride joined an all-star big band that included Hubert Laws, James Carter, Dave Grusin, Lewis Nash, and cameos by Richard Bona (whose own Afro-Cuban flavored band preceded the tribute) and Gregoire Maret, plus lead vocals by Valerie Simpson, directed by John Clayton. They beautifully reprised selections from Q’s “Walking in Space” era on A&M Records. Another festival high point came the following Saturday evening when McBride’s soulfully swinging trio played the last set at Dizzy’s, with the impressively facile young pianist Christian Sands and Cleveland’s own Jerome Jennings on drums.

Not totally beholden to the firmly established, MJF also offers ample stage to the emerging artists in the music. One notable example, besides the ubiquitous wunderkind pianist Joey Alexander playing to a packed house on the Garden Stage Saturday night, perhaps the most promising young artist of this year’s MJF was the homegrown flutist-vocalist Elena Pinderhughes (mark that name down for future reference). The remarkably poised Ms. Pinderhughes, who matriculated in MJF’s student Next Generation Jazz Orchestra, showed up on the Arena stage Saturday night in the latest edition of drummer and this year’s Artist-in-Residence Terri Lyne Carrington‘s women-centric Mosaic Project, as part of TLC’s “Love and Soul” program, adroitly navigating her flute and voice, and delivering a penetrating poetic expression. Next day Elena led her own band at 6:15 on the Garden Stage. She was not by a longshot the only promising young artist to grace the 2016 MJF stages. Also notable was the Friday night opening set on the Nightclub stage delivered by drummer-vocalist Jamison Ross, whose engaging voice is poised to appeal directly to at least a segment of the same audience that Gregory Porter has captivated. The latter, who never fails to positively thrill the Monterey audience, was featured on the Sunday matinee in the Arena, opposite the rising tenor man of the day, Kamasi Washington.

Additional festival interconnections found Bad Plus pianist Ethan Iverson joining the great drummer Billy Hart‘s quartet for Hart’s 75th birthday celebration on the Nighclub stage Saturday night. The protean bassist John Patitucci led his Electric Guitar Quartet on the Nightclub Stage, the next night joining Wayne Shorter‘s impeccable quartet on the Arena Stage for the premier performance of Shorter’s latest opus, “The Unfolding,” with the Monterey Jazz Festival Wind Ensemble, as did Brian Blade who’d earlier drummed with Still Dreaming. No wonder Quincy Jones stuck around for the weekend, to his seeming endless delight. Besides the wonderful Friday evening reprise of his A&M recordings, two of his young proteges performed on festival stages, including the young Cuban pianist Alfredo Rodriguez and the multi-instrumentalist YouTube sensation Jacob Collier.

One mediocre exception to the raft of rewarding performances was a rather tired performance billed as “The Ultimate Tribute to Ray Charles”, with the ghost band Ray Charles Orchestra and Maceo Parker. The latter quizzically (though fairly skillfully) reprised Charles vocals, yet largely failed to deliver on his own signature alto saxophone. That was the only bobble this observer experienced. There was much to be loved at this year’s MJF edition, including the delightful surprise of guitarist Bill Frisell playing Wes Montgomery’s classic “Bumpin'”! And besides the many exceptional performances, MJF’s humanities component delivered rewarding conversations with Terri Lyne Carrington & Toshiko Akiyoshi, and Quincy Jones & Clint Eastwood (a longtime MJF board member), each skillfully moderated by Ashley Kahn, journalist Dan Ouellette’s annual live DownBeat Blindfold Test (this year with McBride), and screenings of the film Brownie Speaks: The Life, Music & Legacy of Clifford Brown in yet another MJF venue, the Jazz Theater, where those seeking shelter from the evening nip can catch simulcasts of all Arena performances throughout the festival.

All black & white performance photos by Tyrone Kenney, aka The ArtOgrapher; lookout for his Neo Bop project…

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Building a Truth Revolution

Brothers Zaccai and Luques Curtis, from Hartford, CT, spent some of their earliest music matriculation at NEA Jazz Master Jackie & Dolly McLean’s visionary Artist Collective in Hartford. Since that time they’ve played with such notable artists as NEA Jazz Master Eddie Palmieri, Donald Harrison, Brian Lynch, Papo Vasquez, Jerry Gonzalez Fort Apache Band, Sean Jones, Orrin Evans, Francisco Mela, Etienne Charles, Cindy Blackman Santana, and Ralph Peterson. Additionally they co-lead their own Curtis Brothers band.

As recording artists they’ve taken things into their own hands, founding and building Truth Revolution as their recording home. Stretching out beyond their own recordings, they’ve engaged both young, emerging and master level musicians to record on Truth Revolution. The Independent Ear is always on the lookout for enterprising artists, so we recently posed a few questions which the brothers answered collectively.

Luques and Zaccai Curtis Luques and Zaccai Curtis


There’s a certain sensibility one gets from the name Truth Revolution of your record company. Where and how did you come up with that name?

Originally, the name comes from my publishing company “Truth Revolution Publishing.” When we first started the label I started branding my own compositions with that never expecting it to be anything else. When we started to release other music it was suggested by multiple people that we use the name Truth Revolution as a brand.

Today “Truth Revolution” for us represents a revolution in music. Providing a way for Jazz and Latin Jazz artists to get their music recognized without breaking their banks and backs.

Given both of your busy playing schedules, is this a two-man operation or do you have partners?

We have partners and contractors that we work with heavily. Without them, the daily operations would never be completed in timely fashion. All of our staff here has been doing such an awesome job so shout out to the TRR crew!

How long had you been thinking of launching your own label, and what was your planning process?

When we first thought about it (around 2005) there wasn’t much of a plan. We gathered as much information from our predecessors that had their own labels and formally launched our label in 2009. As time went on we grew and more people became involved. The evolutionary process is not over and we have so much in store for the immediate future.

In your website descriptives, under “Why The Name?” you say your relationship with artists “…is based on a partnership agreement.” Given that agreement of partnership, since you put out the records and those attendant responsibilities, and besides a commitment to great artistry what are your expectations of artists whose recordings you release?

The partnership differs between each artist/project but isn’t limited to us working on just CD releases. All of the artists on our label have our trust and we have theirs. Working on live shows, videos, building a fan base or recording is mutually beneficial toward both us and the artist. We are invested in them and trust them to carry the brand while they trust us to keep fighting for their music to be heard.

Talk about some of the artists you’ve recorded and why you chose to record those particular artists.

We have been lucky enough to be trusted with the production, distribution and branding of the greatest musicians of the Latin Jazz idiom like Mitch Frohman and Ray Vega. Working with them is such a blessing because we learned so much from their releases and their patience will be forever appreciated. Our earliest releases(besides our own Curtis Brothers music) by Kris Allen and Giovanni Almonte were for sure trial by fire and they are still working with us in many respects. Our latest releases by legendary percussionists Little Johnny Rivero and Ralph Irizarry have been very well received by Latin Jazz fans around the world and allowed us to connect to that network which we love being a part of. Vocalist, Orice Jenkins as our youngest artist, brings such a bright light to our catalogue. There are so many great recordings on the label currently and we could write about each one but the pride and joy of the company is the amazing release by [bass master] Andy Gonzalez ‘Entre Colleges.’ He’s been one of our mentors as young students of the music and has, in recent years, become ill. That kind of collaboration is what we live for and I know 2017 will be even better!



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Whisper Not Benny Golson

Whisper Not: The Autobiography of Benny Golson
by Benny Golson and Jim Merod
Temple University Press

Saxophonist-composer Benny Golson exemplifies the jazz life well-lived. He developed a distinctive sound on the tenor saxophone, one that has become more smoke-infused and slightly burry with age. He has written a compact but potent body of jazz standards (think “Whisper Not,” “Stablemates,” “Along Came Betty,” etc.). He successfully crossed over to television and film scoring. He has avoided some of the pitfalls of the jazz life; scandal has thoroughly whiffed in attaching itself to one of the true gentlemen of jazz. Now in his 8th decade he continues to be a vital presence on the recording and performing scene, picking and choosing his opportunities wisely. And that life is well-chronicled in this informative new volume that is more memoir than traditional autobiography. Benny and his collaborator Jim Merod have chosen not the traditional cradle-to-maturity autobiographical approach, but the approach of detailing key touchstones in Benny’s evolution, detailed with great humor and with no obvious bitterness or axe to grind, in a way that his intimates will recognize as the reflections of one of the more genteel masters to have ever addressed this music.

At first reading one might be tempted to point fingers at his writing collaborator for a tendency towards the occasional (but forgivable) florid language, as exemplified by Benny’s rather over-the-top detailing of his endearing, head-over-heels reaction to meeting and subsequently courting his beloved wife Bobbie. But if you know Benny, recognizing his conversational style and his gentlemanly demeanor, you recognize that’s pure Benny Golson. (I recall an email I received from him once in which he prefaced his note by saying “I was thinking of you in a most intense way today.”) Here’s an example from his loving recollections of his dear friend John Coltrane. In a chapter recalling two whom the chapter refers to as “Unrivaled Aces” (Sarah Vaughan and Bill Evans), recalling Miles Davis‘ monumental “Kind of Blue” recording and his saxophonist-compadre’s participation, is this somewhat wistful passage: “There was a time in my life when I wondered what might have transpired if, in some counterintuitive but angelic way, Philly Joe Jones had recommended me instead of my dear pal John for Miles’ quintet. I am deeply, ironically aware that despite the world’s absurdity and evil, most of the important events that define reality are shaped with rare tact and surprising finesse.” That’s pure Benny Golson, a man who in a different incarnation might have been an English language professor at Yale.

Though he takes – at the very most – only modest credit for it, Benny Golson is definitely one of the architects of the jazz institution known as Art Blakey‘s Jazz Messengers; if for no other reason than his indelible contributions to the Blakey book, “Whisper Not,” “Along Came Betty,” and particularly his touchstone “Blues March.” The passage on how he convinced Blakey that he needed a march – of all things! – in his book is priceless. Here’s another example from Golson’s first week with the Messengers: “During our week at Cafe Bohemia I noticed that Art’s repertoire didn’t include any strong, self-identifying arrangements. I also noticed other things that bothered me. After a few days, I decided to talk to him about my concerns. Looking back, I cannot believe I said the things I decided to say to him.

“I confronted Art during an intermission with a series of extremely presumptuous observations. I began something like this: “Art, you should be a millionaire.” How’s that for a bold opening? It got his attention. Somewhat taken aback, Art responded openly. “A millionaire, what do you mean?” Never could there be a less defended chin for my next jab. “With all your talent, you should make much more money.” (Somehow I learned how much this group received for the week at Cafe Bohemia; the money was terrible.) Next, I told him his lack of punctuality was atrocious. “You leave the bandstand for a fifteen-minute intermission and disappear sometimes for an hour. At the beginning of the night, you and other members of the group are frequently late… in fact almost always.” Art was totally attentive, so I plowed ahead. “You’re undependable and unreliable. Art, you’re a risk for anyone who hires you.”

“Art’s eyes widened in disbelief. “This green upstart punk is saying these things to me,” he must have been thinking. “Who is this kid?” But he let me go on. “I heard Small’s Paradise never wants you to work there again, because you were late all the time. Is that true?” A pause and then his admission: “Yeah-h-h, I guess so.” I pressed on with my lecture. “Procrastination cannot be a way of life,” I informed him. “In the long run it makes things more difficult and hinders aspirations. It is selfish, since other musicians are almost always involved.” I blathered on, assuming Art would be aghast at my remarks. But he was looking at me with interest, apparently unoffended. Did I really say such a preposterous, self-inflated thing to this giant of an artist? But Art took my critique absolutely seriously, and meekly asked me, “What should I do.” Art Blakey wisely took Golson’s good counsel!

Other rich chapters in this book include Benny’s vivid recollections of his difficulties, and ultimate delights, in breaking into the Hollywood studio scoring world, as well as his admiring reflections on film and television personalities who played important roles in his odyssey, including a particularly warm chapter on Steven Spielberg and Tom Hanks and his lovely experience with them making their film “The Terminal.” Chapters 21-25 comprise Part V of the book, titled Amazing Friendships on his key relationships with Quincy Jones, Harry “Sweets” Edison and Dizzy Gillespie, his homeboy Philly Joe Jones, plus chapters on Thelonious Monk, Max Roach, and Dinah Washington (including a hilarious passage on the oft-married diva’s unsuccessful effort at seduction, and Curtis Fuller and The Jazztet.

Whisper Not is deeply complimentary of these and a plethora of jazz greats and personalities who’ve touched Benny Golson’s life, from his Philly homies Coltrane and Jimmy Heath, to Peggy Lee, Mickey Rooney, and Redd Foxx, to Sonny Rollins and Muhammad Ali. Benny Golson is definitely not one to tell tales out of school; there’s nothing remotely gratuitous in his recollections. This is a warmly enjoyable, humor-laced jazz memoir that thoroughly eschews any sense of linear approach, and in this case that’s not a bad thing.

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